• Oracle 表空间查询与操作微信红包80元免费领取
  • 2018年02月25日
  • 网络收集
一。查询篇
1.查询oracle表空间的使用情况
select b.file_id  文件ID,
  b.tablespace_name  表空间,
  b.file_name     物理文件名,
  b.bytes       总字节数,
  (b.bytes-sum(nvl(a.bytes,0)))   已使用,
  sum(nvl(a.bytes,0))        剩余,
  sum(nvl(a.bytes,0))/(b.bytes)*100 剩余百分比
  from dba_free_space a,dba_data_files b
  where a.file_id=b.file_id
  group by b.tablespace_name,b.file_name,b.file_id,b.bytes
  order by b.tablespace_name
2.查询oracle系统用户的默认表空间和临时表空间
select default_tablespace,temporary_tablespace from dba_users
3.查询单张表的使用情况
select segment_name,bytes from dba_segments where segment_name = 'RE_STDEVT_FACT_DAY' and owner = USER
RE_STDEVT_FACT_DAY是您要查询的表名称
4.查询所有用户表使用大小的前三十名
select * from (select segment_name,bytes from dba_segments where owner = USER order by bytes desc ) where rownum <= 30
5.查询当前用户默认表空间的使用情况
select tablespacename,sum(totalContent),sum(usecontent),sum(sparecontent),avg(sparepercent)
from
(
SELECT b.file_id as id,b.tablespace_name as tablespacename,b.bytes as totalContent,(b.bytes-sum(nvl(a.bytes,0))) as usecontent,sum(nvl(a.bytes,0)) as sparecontent,sum(nvl(a.bytes,0))/(b.bytes)*100 as sparepercent
FROM dba_free_space a,dba_data_files b
WHERE a.file_id=b.file_id and b.tablespace_name = (select default_tablespace from dba_users where username = user)
group by b.tablespace_name,b.file_name,b.file_id,b.bytes
)
GROUP BY tablespacename
6.查询用户表空间的表
select * from user_tables
==================================================================================
一、建立表空间
CREATE TABLESPACE test
DATAFILE 'c:/oracle/oradata/db/test01.dbf' SIZE 50M
UNIFORM SIZE 1M; #指定区尺寸为128k,如不指定,区尺寸默认为64k

CREATE TABLESPACE test
DATAFILE 'c:/oracle/oradata/db/test01.dbf' SIZE 50M
MINIMUM EXTENT 50K EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL
DEFAULT STORAGE (INITIAL 50K NEXT 50K MAXEXTENTS 100 PCTINCREASE 0);
可从dba_tablespaces中查看刚创建的表空间的信息
二、建立UNDO表空间
CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE test_undo
DATAFILE 'c:/oracle/oradata/db/test_undo.dbf' SIZE 50M
UNDO表空间的EXTENT是由本地管理的,而且在创建时的SQL语句中只能使用DATAFILE和EXTENT MANAGEMENT子句。
ORACLE规定在任何时刻只能将一个还原表空间赋予数据库,即在一个实例中可以有多个还原表空间存在,但只能有一个为活动的。可以使用ALTER SYSTEM命令进行还原表空间的切换。
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_TABLESPACE = test_undo;
三、建立临时表空间
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE test_temp
TEMPFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/test_temp.dbf' SIZE 50M
查看系统当前默认的临时表空间
select * from dba_properties where property_name like 'DEFAULT%'
改变系统默认临时表空间
alter database default temporary tablespace test_temp;
四、改变表空间状态
1.使表空间脱机
ALTER TABLESPACE test OFFLINE;
如果是意外删除了数据文件,则必须带有RECOVER选项
ALTER TABLESPACE game test FOR RECOVER;
2.使表空间联机
ALTER TABLESPACE test ONLINE;
3.使数据文件脱机
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 3 OFFLINE;
4.使数据文件联机
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 3 ONLINE;
5.使表空间只读
ALTER TABLESPACE test READ ONLY;
6.使表空间可读写
ALTER TABLESPACE test READ WRITE;
五、删除表空间
DROP TABLESPACE test INCL ING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;
DROP TABLESPACE 表空间名 [INCL ING CONTENTS [AND DATAFILES] [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]]
1. INCL ING CONTENTS 子句用来删除段
2. AND DATAFILES 子句用来删除数据文件
3. CASCADE CONSTRAINTS 子句用来删除所有的引用完整性约束

六、扩展表空间
首先查看表空间的名字和所属文件
select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,
round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space
from dba_data_files
order by tablespace_name;
1.增加数据文件
ALTER TABLESPACE test
ADD DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/test02.dbf' SIZE 1000M;
2.手动增加数据文件尺寸
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 'c:/oracle/oradata/db/test01.dbf'
RESIZE 100M;
3.设定数据文件自动扩展
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 'c:/oracle/oradata/db/test01.dbf'
AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 100M
MAXSIZE 200M;
设定后可从dba_tablespace中查看表空间信息,从v$datafile中查看对应的数据文件信息
==================================================================================
create tablespace scgl
datafile 'E:\ORACLE\PROD T\10.1.0\ORADATA\ORCL\scgl2.dbf'
size 50m
autoextend on
next 50m maxsize 20480m
extent management local;
create tablespace test_data
logging
datafile 'E:\ORACLE\PROD T\10.1.0\ORADATA\ORCL\user_data.dbf'
size 50m
autoextend on
next 50m maxsize 20480m
extent management local;
create user scgl identified by qwer1234
default tablespace scgl
temporary tablespace scgl_temp;
tempfile 'E:\ORACLE\PROD T\10.1.0\ORADATA\ORCL\user_temp.dbf'
create temporary tablespace scgl_temp
tempfile 'E:\ORACLE\PROD T\10.1.0\ORADATA\ORCL\scgl_temp.dbf'
size 50m
autoextend on
next 50m maxsize 20480m
extent management local;
grant connect,resource, dba to scgl;
oracle创建表空间 SYS用户在CMD下以DBA身份登陆:
在CMD中打sqlplus /nolog
然后再
conn / as sysdba
//创建临时表空间
create temporary tablespace user_temp
tempfile 'D:\oracle\oradata\Oracle9i\user_temp.dbf'
size 50m
autoextend on
next 50m maxsize 20480m
extent management local;
//创建数据表空间
create tablespace test_data
logging
datafile 'D:\oracle\oradata\Oracle9i\user_data.dbf'
size 50m
autoextend on
next 50m maxsize 20480m
extent management local;
//创建用户并指定表空间
create user username identified by password
default tablespace user_data
temporary tablespace user_temp;
查询表空间使用情况
SELECT UPPER(F.TABLESPACE_NAME) "表空间名",
D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB "表空间大小(M)",
D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB - F.TOTAL_BYTES "已使用空间(M)",
TO_CHAR(ROUND((D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB - F.TOTAL_BYTES) / D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB * 100,2),'990.99') || '%' "使用比",
F.TOTAL_BYTES "空闲空间(M)",
F.MAX_BYTES "最大块(M)"
FROM (SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME,
ROUND(SUM(BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) TOTAL_BYTES,
ROUND(MAX(BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) MAX_BYTES
FROM SYS.DBA_FREE_SPACE
GROUP BY TABLESPACE_NAME) F,
(SELECT DD.TABLESPACE_NAME,
ROUND(SUM(DD.BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) TOT_GROOTTE_MB
FROM SYS.DBA_DATA_FILES DD
GROUP BY DD.TABLESPACE_NAME) D
WHERE D.TABLESPACE_NAME = F.TABLESPACE_NAME
ORDER BY 1
查询表空间的free space
select tablespace_name,
count(*) as extends,
round(sum(bytes) / 1024 / 1024, 2) as MB,
sum(blocks) as blocks
from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name;
--查询表空间的总容量
select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) / 1024 / 1024 as MB
from dba_data_files
group by tablespace_name;
查询表空间使用率
select total.tablespace_name,
round(total.MB, 2) as Total_MB,
round(total.MB - free.MB, 2) as Used_MB,
round((1 - free.MB / total.MB) * 100, 2) || '%' as Used_Pct
from (select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) / 1024 / 1024 as MB
from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name) free,
(select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) / 1024 / 1024 as MB
from dba_data_files
group by tablespace_name) total
where free.tablespace_name = total.tablespace_name;
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.建立表空间:create tablespace test datafile '/u01/test.dbf' size 10M uniform size 128k
#指定区尺寸为128k ,块大小为默认8K
#大文件表空间 create bigfile tablespace big_tbs datafile '/u01/big_tbs.dbf ' size 100G
2.建非标准表show parameter db alter system set db_2k_cache_size=10M create tablespace test datafile '/u01/test.dbf' size 10M blocksize 2K uniform size 128k
#常见错误
SQL> alter system set db_2k_cache_size=2M; alter system set db_2k_cache_size=2M ERROR at line 1: ORA-02097: parameter cannot be modified because specified value is invalid ORA-00384: Insufficient memory to grow cache
#解决
SQL> alter system set sga_max_size=400M scope=spfile; SQL> shutdown immediate; SQL> startup SQL> alter system set db_2k_cache_size=10M; System altered.
3.查看区大小与块大小#区大小 conn y / 123 create table t(i number) tablespace test; Insert into t values(10) select bytes/1024 from user_segments where segment_name=upper('t');
#块大小 Show parameter block(默认64K)
#非标准表空间的blocksize SQL> select * from v$dbfile; SQL> select name,block_size,status from v$datafile; SQL> select block_size from v$datafile where file#=14;
4.删除表空间drop tablespace test including contents and datafiles
5.查表空间:#查数据文件 select * from v$dbfile; #所有表空间 select * from v$tablespace;
#表空间的数据文件 select file_name,tablespace_name from dba_data_files;
6.建立undo表空间create undo tablespace undotbs01 datafile '/u01/undotbs01.dbf' size 5M;
#切换到新建的undo表空间 alter system set undo_tablespace=undotbs01;
7.建立临时表空间create temporary tablespace temp_data tempfile '/u01/temp.db' size 5M; create bigfile temporary tablespace bigtem tempfile '/u01/bigtemp.db' size 5M;
8.改变表空间状态
(0.)查看状态
#表空间状态 select tablespace_name,block_size,status from dba_tablespaces;
#数据文件状态 select name,block_size,status from v$datafile;
(1.)表空间脱机alter tablespace test offline
#如果意外删除了数据文件 alter tablespace test offline for recover
(2.)表空间联机alter tablespace test online
(3.)数据文件脱机select * from v$dbfile; alter database datafile 3 offline
(4.)数据文件联机recover datafile 3; alter database datafile 3 online;
(5.)使表空间只读alter tablespace test read only
(6.)使表空间可读写alter tablespace test read write;
9.扩展表空间#首先查看表空间的名字和所属文件及空间 select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space from dba_data_files order by tablespace_name; #三种扩展微信红包80元免费领取
1.alter tablespace test add datafile '/u01/test02.dbf' size 10M(自动加一个datafile)
2.alter database datafile '/u01/test.dbf' resize 20M;
3.alter database datafile '/u01/test.dbf' autoextend on next 10M maxsize 1G;
#设定后查看表空间信息
select a.tablespace_name,a.bytes total,b.bytes used,c.bytes free,(b.bytes*100)/a.bytes "% used",(c.bytes*100)/a.bytes "% free" from sys.sm$ts_avail a,sys.sm$ts_used b,sys.sm$ts_free c where a.tablespace_name=b.tablespace_name and a.tablespace_name=c.tablespace_name;
10.移动表空间的数据文件
#先确定数据文件据在表空间
SQL>select tablespace_name,file_name from dba_data_files where file_name='/u01/test.dbf';
#open状态
SQL>alter tablespace test offline; SQL>host move /u01/test.dbf /u01/oracle/test.dbf; SQL>alter tablespace test rename datafile '/u01/test.dbf' to '/u01/oracle/test.dbf'; SQL>alter tablespace test offline;
#mount状态 SQL>shutdown immediate; SQL>startup mount SQL>host move /u01/test.dbf /u01/oracle/test.dbf; SQL>alter database rename file '/u01/test.dbf' to '/u01/oracle/test.dbf';
11.表空间和数据文件常用的数据字典与动态性能视图v$dbfile v$datafile dba_segments user_segments dba_data_files v$tablespace dba_tablespaces user_tablespaces
--查询表空间使用情况
SELECT UPPER(F.TABLESPACE_NAME) "表空间名",
D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB "表空间大小(M)",
D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB - F.TOTAL_BYTES "已使用空间(M)",
TO_CHAR(ROUND((D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB - F.TOTAL_BYTES) / D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB * 100,2),'990.99') || '%' "使用比",
F.TOTAL_BYTES "空闲空间(M)",
F.MAX_BYTES "最大块(M)"
FROM (SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME,
ROUND(SUM(BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) TOTAL_BYTES,
ROUND(MAX(BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) MAX_BYTES
FROM SYS.DBA_FREE_SPACE
GROUP BY TABLESPACE_NAME) F,
(SELECT DD.TABLESPACE_NAME,
ROUND(SUM(DD.BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) TOT_GROOTTE_MB
FROM SYS.DBA_DATA_FILES DD
GROUP BY DD.TABLESPACE_NAME) D
WHERE D.TABLESPACE_NAME = F.TABLESPACE_NAME
ORDER BY 1
--查询表空间的free space
select tablespace_name,
count(*) as extends,
round(sum(bytes) / 1024 / 1024, 2) as MB,
sum(blocks) as blocks
from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name;
--查询表空间的总容量
select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) / 1024 / 1024 as MB
from dba_data_files
group by tablespace_name;
--查询表空间使用率
select total.tablespace_name,
round(total.MB, 2) as Total_MB,
round(total.MB - free.MB, 2) as Used_MB,
round((1 - free.MB / total.MB) * 100, 2) || '%' as Used_Pct
from (select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) / 1024 / 1024 as MB
from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name) free,
(select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) / 1024 / 1024 as MB
from dba_data_files
group by tablespace_name) total
where free.tablespace_name = total.tablespace_name;
//给用户授予权限
grant connect,resource to username;
//以后以该用户登录,创建的任何数据库对象都属于user_temp 和user_data表空间,
这就不用在每创建一个对象给其指定表空间了
撤权:
revoke 权限... from 用户名;
删除用户命令
drop user user_name cascade;

建立表空间
CREATE TABLESPACE data01
DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/DATA01.dbf' SIZE 500M
UNIFORM SIZE 128k; #指定区尺寸为128k,如不指定,区尺寸默认为64k

删除表空间
DROP TABLESPACE data01 INCL ING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES;
一、建立表空间
CREATE TABLESPACE data01
DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/DATA01.dbf' SIZE 500M
UNIFORM SIZE 128k; #指定区尺寸为128k,如不指定,区尺寸默认为64k
二、建立UNDO表空间
CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE UNDOTBS02
DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/UNDOTBS02.dbf' SIZE 50M
#注意:在OPEN状态下某些时刻只能用一个UNDO表空间,如果要用新建的表空间,必须切换到该表空间:
ALTER SYSTEM SET undo_tablespace=UNDOTBS02;
三、建立临时表空间
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp_data
TEMPFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/TEMP_DATA.dbf' SIZE 50M
四、改变表空间状态
1.使表空间脱机
ALTER TABLESPACE game OFFLINE;
如果是意外删除了数据文件,则必须带有RECOVER选项
ALTER TABLESPACE game OFFLINE FOR RECOVER;
2.使表空间联机
ALTER TABLESPACE game ONLINE;
3.使数据文件脱机
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 3 OFFLINE;
4.使数据文件联机
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 3 ONLINE;
5.使表空间只读
ALTER TABLESPACE game READ ONLY;
6.使表空间可读写
ALTER TABLESPACE game READ WRITE;
五、删除表空间
DROP TABLESPACE data01 INCL ING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES;

六、扩展表空间
首先查看表空间的名字和所属文件
select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,
round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space
from dba_data_files
order by tablespace_name;
1.增加数据文件
ALTER TABLESPACE game
ADD DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/GAME02.dbf' SIZE 1000M;
2.手动增加数据文件尺寸
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/GAME.dbf'
RESIZE 4000M;
3.设定数据文件自动扩展
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/GAME.dbf
AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 100M
MAXSIZE 10000M;

设定后查看表空间信息
SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE,
(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE"
FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C
WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE